OPERATIONS RESEARCH (MCQS) - Study For Buddies

## Saturday, February 13, 2021

T.Y B.COM
SEMESTER - 5

MID SEMESTER EXAMINATION
OPERATIONS RESEARCH
(OR)
100 - MCQS

1. _________ are expressed is the form of inequities or equations

a) Constraints
b) Objective Functions
c) Both A and B
d) None of the above

2. The objective functions and constraints are linear relationship between ________

a) Variables
b) Constraints
c) Functions
d) All of the above

3. Assignment problem helps to find a maximum weight identical in nature in a weighted __________

a) Tripartite graph
b) Bipartite graph
c) Partite 8raph
d) None of the above

4. All the parameters in the linear programming model are assumed to be _______

a) Variables
b) Constraints
c) Functions
d) None of the above

5. The solution need not be in ________ numbers

a) Prime Number
b) Whole Number
c) Complex Number
d) None of the above

6. Graphic method can be applied to solve a LPP when there are only ________ variable

a) One
b) More than One
c) Two
d) Three

7. If the feasible region of a LPP is empty, the solution is _______

a) Infeasible
b) Unbounded
c) Alternative
d) None of the above

8. The variables whose coefficient vectors are unit vectors are called _________

a) Unit Variables
b) Basic Variables
c) Non basic Variables
d) None of the above

9. Any column or raw of a simplex table is called a ________

a) Vector
b) Key column
c) Key Raw
d) None of the above

10. If there are 'm' original variables and 'n' introduced variables, then there will be ______ columns in the simplex table

a) M + n
b) M - n
c) 3 + m + n
d) M + n - 1

11. A minimization problem can be converted into a maximization problem by changing the sign of coefficients in the _______

a) constraints
b) Objective Functions
c) Both A and B
d) None of the above

12. If in a LPP , the solution of a variable can be made infinity large without violating the constraints, the solution is _________

a) Infeasible
b) Unbounded
c) Alternative
d) None of the above

13. In maximization cases, ___________ are assigned to the artificial variables as their coefficients in the objective function

a) +m
b) -m
c) 0
d) None of the above

14. In simplex method, we add __________ variables in the case of '='

a) Slack Variable
b) Surplus Variable
c) Artificial Variable
d) None of the above

15. In simplex method, if there is tie between a decision variable and a slack (or surplus) variable, __________ should be selected

a) Slack variable
b) Surplus variable
c) Decision variable
d) None of the above

16. A BFS of a LPP is said to be ________ if at least one of the basic variable is zero

a) Degenerate
b) Non-degenerate
c) Infeasible
d) Unbounded

17. In LPP, degeneracy occurs in _________ stages

a) One
b) Two
c) Three
d) Four

18. Every LPP is associated with another LPP is called ________

a) Primal
b) Dual
c) Non-linear programming
d) None of the above

19. As for maximization in assignment problem, the objective is to maximize the _________

a) Profit
b) optimization
c) cost
d) None of the above

20. If there are more than one optimum solution for the decision variable the solution is _______

a) Infeasible
b) Unbounded
c) Alternative
d) None of the above

21. Dual of the dual is _________

a) Primal
b) Dual
c) Alternative
d) None of the above

22. Operations Research approach is

a) Multi-disciplinary
b) Scientific
c) Initiative
d) All of the above

23. For analyzing the problem, decision - makers should normally study

a) Its qualitative aspects
b) Its quantitative aspects
c) Both A and B
d) Neither A and B

24. Decision variables are

a) Controllable
b) Uncontrollable
c) Parameters
d) None of the above

25. The issue of decision models

a) Is possible when the variable's value is
b) Reduces the scope of judgment and intuition known with certainty in decision making
c) Requires the knowledge of computer software use
d) None of the above

26. _________ is one of the fundamental combinatorial optimization problems.

a) Assignment problem
b) Transportation problem
c) Optimization Problem
d) None of the above

27. An optimization model

a) Mathematically provides the best decision
b) Provides decision within its limited context
c) Helps in evaluating various alternatives constantly
d) All of the above

28. The quantitative approach to decision analysis is a

a) Logical approach
b) Rational approach
c) Scientific approach
d) All of the above

29. Operations Research approach is typically based on the use of

a) Physical model
b) Mathematical model
c) lconic model
d) Descriptive model

30. In a manufacturing process, who takes the decisions as to what quantities and which process or processes are to be used so that the cost is minimum and profit is maximum?

a) Supervisor
b) Manufacturer
c) Producer
d) Production manager

31. Linear programming has been successfully applied in ________

a) Agricultural
b) Industrial applications
c) Both A and B
d) Manufacturing

32. The term linearity implies _________ among the relevant variables:

a) Straight line
b) Industrial applications
c) Linear lines
d) Both A and B

33. Process refers to the combination of _________  inputs to produce a particular output.

a) one or more
b) two or more
c) one
d) None of the above

34. What has always been very important in the business and industrial world, particularly with regard to problems concerning productions of commodities?

a) Linear Programming
b) Production
c) Decision - making
d) None of the above

35. What are the main questions before a production manager?

a) Which commodity/ commodities to produce
b) In what quantities
c) By which process or processes
d) All of the above

36. Who pointed out that the businessman always studies his production function and his input prices and substitutes one input for another till his costs become the minimum possible?

a) Alan Marshall
b) Alfred Marsh
c) Alfred Marshall
d) None of the above

37. Who invented a method of formal calculations often termed as ?

a) A.V. Kantorovich
b) LV. Kantorovich
c) T.S. Kantorovich
d) Alfred Marshall

38. Who developed Linear Programming for the purpose of scheduling the complicated procurement activities of the United States Air Force?

a) George B. Dantzig
b) James B. Dantzig
c) George B. Dante
d) George V. Dantzig

39. This method of formal calculations often termed as Linear Programming was developed later in which year?

a) 1947
b) 1988
c) 1957
d) 1944

40. What is being considered as one of the most versatile management tools?

a) Electronic Computers
b) Linear Programming
c) Computer Programming
d) None of the above

41. LP is a major innovation since ________ in the field of business decision - making, particularly under conditions of certainty.

a) Industrial Revolution
b) World War I
c) World War II
d) French Revolution

42. The world "Linear" means that the relationships are represented by _______

a) Diagonal lines
b) Curved lines
c) Straight lines
d) Slanting lines

43. The world 'programming' means taking decisions ________

a) Systematically
b) Rapidly
c) Slowly
d) Instantly

44. Who originally called it 'Programming of interdependent activities in a linear structure' but later shortened it to 'Linear Programming' ?

a) Dantzig
b) Kantorovich
c) Marshall
d) None of the above

45. LP can be applied in farm management problems is relates to the allocation of resources such as _________ in such a way that is maximizes net revenue

a) Acreage
b) Labor
c) Water supply or working capital
d) All of the above

46. LP model is based on the assumptions of  _________

a) Proportionality
c) Certainty
d) All of the above

47. __________ assumption means the prior knowledge of all the coefficients in the objective function, the coefficients of the constraints and the resource values.

a) Proportionality
b) Certainty
c) Finite choices
d) Continuity

48. Simple linear programming problem with _________ variables can be easily solved by the graphical method.

a) One decision
b) Four decisions
c) Three decisions
d) Two decisions

49. Any solution to a LPP which satisfies the non- negativity restrictions of the LPP is called its ________

a) Unbounded solution
b) Optimal solution
c) Feasible solution
d) Both A and B

50. Any feasible solution which optimizes (minimizes or maximizes) the objective function of the LPP is called its _______

a) Optimal solution
b) Non-basic variables
c) Solution
d) Basic feasible solution

51. A non-degenerate basic feasible solution is the basic feasible solution which has exactly m positive Xi (i=1,2,..,m), i.e., none of the basic variable is  ______

a) Infinity
b) One
c) Zero
d) X

52. What is also defined as the non-negative variables which are added in the LHS of the constraint to convert the inequality  '_ ' into an equation?

a) Slack variables
b) Simplex algorithm
c) Key element
d) None of the above

53. Which method is an iterative procedure for solving LPP in a finite number of steps?

a) Simplex algorithm
b) Slack variable
c) M method
d) Simplex method

54. In simplex algorithm , which method is used to deal with the situation where an infeasible starting basic solution is given?

a) Slack variable
b) Simplex method
c) M-method
d) None of the above

55. How many methods are there to solve LPP?

a) Three
d) Two
c) Four
d) None of the above

56.  ________ is another method to solve a given LPP involving some artificial variable ?

a) Big M method
b) Method of penalties
c) Two-phase simplex method
d) None of the above

57. Which variables are fictitious and cannot have any physical meaning ?

a) Optimal variable
b) Decision variable
c) Artificial variable
d) None of the above

58. An objective function which states the determinants of the quantity to be either maximized or minimized is called __________

a) Feasible function
b) Optimal function
c) Criterion function
d) None of the above

59. An assumption that implies that finite numbers of choices are available to a decision - maker and the decision variables do not assume negative values is known as __________

a) Certainty
b) Continuity
c) Finite choices
d) None of the above

60. A set of values X1, X2,..Xn which satisfies the constraints of the LPP is called  _______

a) Solution
b) Variable
C) Linearity
d) None of the above

61. A basic solution which also satisfies the condition in which all basic variables are non -negative is called ________

a) Basic feasible solution
b) Feasible solution
c) Optimal solution
d) None of the above

62. All the constraints are expressed as equations and the right hand side of each constraint and all variables are non-negative is called _______

a) Canonical variable
b) Canonical form
c) Canonical solution
d) Both A and B

63. An objective function is maximized when it is a _________  function

a) Passive
b) Profit
c) Cost
d) None of the above

64. LPP is exactly used in solving what kind of resource allocation problems?

a) Production planning and scheduling
b) Transportation
d) All of the above

65. Currently, LPP is used in solving a wide range of practical _________

b) Agricultural problems
c) Manufacturing problems
d) None of the above

66. __________ refers to the combination of one or more inputs to produce a particular output.

a) Solution
b) variable
c) Process
d) None of the above

67. An optimum solution is considered the _________ among feasible solutions.

a) Worst
b) Best
c) Ineffective
d) None of the above

68. Please state which statement is true.

(i) All linear programming problems may not have unique solutions
(ii) The artificial variable technique is not a device that does not get the starting basic feasible solution.

a) Both (i) and (ii)
b) (ii) only
c) (i) only
d) Both are incorrect

69. Please state which statement is incorrect.

(i)Linear programming was first formulated by an English economist L.V. Kantorovich
(ii) LP is generally used in solving maximization or minimization problems subject to certain assumptions.

a) (ii) only
b) (i) only
c) Both (i) and( ii)
d) Both are correct

70. _____________ which is a subclass of a linear programming problem (LPP)

a) Programming problem
b) Transportation problem
c) Computer problem
d) Both are incorrect

71. The solution of any transportation problem is obtained in how many stages?

a) Five
b) Four
c) Three
d) Two

72. An optimal solution is the _______ Stage of a solution obtained by improving the initial solution

a) Third
b) First
c) Second
d) Final

73. MODI method is used to obtain _______

a) Optimal solutions
b) Optimality test
c) Both A and B
d) Optimization

74. For solving an assignment problem, which method is used?

a) Hungarian
b) American
c) German
d) Both are incorrect

75. To make an unbalanced assignment problem balanced, what are added with all entries as zeroes?

a) Dummy rows
b) Dummy columns
c) Both A and B
d) Dummy entries

76. Any set of non-negative allocations (Xij>0) which satisfies the raw and column sum (rim requirement ) is called a  _____________

a) Linear programming
b) Basic feasible solution
c) Feasible solution
d) None of the above

77. A feasible solution is called a basic feasible solution if the number of non-negative allocations is equal to __________

a) m-n+1
b) m-n-l
c) m+n-1
d) None of the above

78. Any feasible solution to a transportation problem containing m origins and n destinations is said to be ____________

a) Independent
b) Degenerate
c) Non-degenerate
d) Both A and B

79. A path formed by allowing horizontal and vertical lines and the entire corner cells of which are Occupied is called a __________

a) Occupied path
b) Open path
c) Closed path
d) None of the above

80. Transportation algorithm can be used for minimizing the transportation cost of _________ from O origins and D destinations

a) Goods
b) Products
c) Items
d) None of the above

81. If demand is lesser than supply then dummy demand node is added to make it a __________

a) Simple problem
b) Balanced problem
c)Transportation problem
d) None of the above

82. Basic cells indicate positive values and non- basic cells have _________ value for flow

a) Negative
b) Positive
c) One
d) zero

83. According to transportation problem number of basic cells will be exactly ___________

a) m+n-0
b) n+m-1
c) m+n-1
d) None of the above

84. Before starting to solve the problem, it should be balanced. If not then make it balanced by _____________ column incase demand is less than supply or by adding _________ raw incase supply is less
than the demand

a) 0,D
b) m,n
c) Horizontal, Vertical
d) Unshipped supply, Shortage

85. In which phase is optimization done and how does that phase also checks for optimality conditions?

a) Phase II
b) Phase I
c) Phase II
d) None of the above

86. Optimality conditions are expressed as ________ incase all non-basic cells?

a) Negligent costs
c) Reduced costs
d) None of the above

87. A __________ has rows/ column having non- basic cells for holding compensating (+) or (-) sign.

a) Cycle
c) Back track
d) None of the above

88. After determining every basic cell with in this cycle, adjustment is obtained as minimum value in basic cells. this is known as ________

b) aa
c) Both A and B
d) Alternatives

89. Optimal solution is a feasible solution (not necessarily basic ) which minimizes the _________

a) Time taken
b) Partial cost
c) Total cost
d) None of the above

90. State which of the two statements is correct

(i) the cells in the transportation table can be classified in to occupied cells and unoccupied cells
(ii) optimal solution is a feasible solution (not necessarily basic) which maximizes the total cost

a) both (i) and (ii) are correct
b) Two only
c) One only
d) Both (i) and (ii) are incorrect

91. The allocated cells in the transportation table are called ______

a) Occupied cells
b) Empty cells
c) Both A and B
d) Unoccupied cells

92. VAM stands for _______

a) Vogel's Approximation Method
b) Vogel's Approximate Method
c) Vangelis Approximation Method
d) Vogel's Approximation Method

93. Once the initial basic feasible solution has been computed, what is the next step in the problem

a) VAM
b) Modified distribution method
c) Optimality test
d) None of the above

94. One can find the initial basic feasible solution by using ?

a) VAM
b) MODI
c) Optimality test
d) None of the above

95. What do we apply in order to determine the optimum solution ?

a) LPP
b) VAM
c) MODI Method
d) None of the above

96. In a TP, if the number of non-negative independent allocation is ________ than m+n-1.

a) Equivalent
b) Greater
c) Less
d) None of the above

97. A given TP is said to be unbalanced, if the total supply is not equal to the total ________

a) Optimization
b) Demand
c) Cost
d) None of the above

98. If the total supply is less than the total demand, a dummy source (row) is included in the cost matrix with ________

a) Dummy Demand
b) Dummy Supply
c) Zero Cost
d) Both A and B

99. To find the optimal solution, we apply _________

a) LPP
b) VAM
c) MODI Method
d) Rim

100. For maximization in TP , the objective is to maximize the total ________

a) Solution
b) Profit Matrix
c) Profit
d) None of the above